The four parenting philosophies that are frequently utilized in psychology are authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and negligent parenting. They are based on research done by Diana Baumrind in the 1960s while she was a developmental psychologist at the University of California, Berkeley. In the 1980s, Maccoby and Martin, who also contributed, improved the model. In this article, we will discuss 4 types of parenting styles that affect children.
What is Parenting style?
A psychological construct known as a parenting style represents the typical techniques parents use to raise their children. The parenting style is more significant than the amount of time spent with the child.
4 Types of Parenting Styles
Here are the four types of parenting styles:
- Authoritative (Democratic)
- Authoritarian (Disciplinarian)
- Permissive (Indulgent)
- Neglectful (Uninvolved)
1. Authoritative Parenting
High level of demand and excellent responsiveness
Authoritative parents are demanding in terms of maturity and success, but they are also hospitable and understanding. These parents establish and uphold boundaries through clear communication, direction, and rational justification. These parents defend and explain their kids’ behavior to others. Children learn about morals, values, and objectives through explanations and awareness-building activities.
Their methods of punishment are confrontative, which means they are logical, negotiable, goal-oriented, and focused on controlling behavior rather than coercion. The parents in charge are supportive and loving. They value autonomy, encourage independence, and give their children lots of freedom.
According to Baumrind’s research on parenting methods, kids of strong parents tend to:
- Act joyful and satisfied.
- greater independence
- Are more energetic.
- attain improved academic achievement.
- Improve your sense of self-worth.
- Use effective social skills when interacting with peers.
- Better mental health with fewer instances of alcohol and drug abuse, delinquency, depression, anxiety, and suicide attempts
- Be less violent in your behavior.
2. Authoritarian Parenting
High level of demand and minimal responsiveness
High levels of parental control and low levels of parental response are the two characteristics of the authoritarian style. Although authoritative parenting and authoritarian parenting have similar titles, they differ significantly in their expectations of and methods for parenting children. A disciplinary parent is an authoritarian.
To maintain behavioral control, they frequently use harsh punishments including corporal punishment and strict discipline. Their disciplinary methods are coercive, which means they are arbitrary, prescriptive, dictatorial, and interested in establishing status differences. Typically, authoritarian parents are not nurturing or aware of their children’s needs. Usually, they give this justification, saying that it will make their kids stronger.
Children whose parents practice authoritarian discipline usually:
- Have a negative outlook.
- Be less self-reliant.
- appear uneasy.
- possess a low sense of self.
- More frequently display behavior or behavioral concerns.
- More outbursts of rage.
- worsen your academic performance.
- possess fewer social skills.
- be more prone to internalizing mental and behavioral problems.
- be more inclined to struggle with drug use.
- possess poorer coping mechanisms
3. Permissive Parenting
Low level of demand and extremely responsive
Parents who are permissive also referred to as passive parents, set few parental rules and boundaries and are hesitant to enforce them.
This kind, generous parents don’t relish turning down their children’s requests or disappointing them. They adopt passive parenting styles.
The worst results frequently occur for children with permissive parents:
- cannot adhere to rules.
- have less restraint.
- possess an egocentric nature.
- more issues in your social interactions and romantic relationships.
4. Neglectful Parenting
Low level of demand and minimal responsiveness Parents who are negligent do not establish clear limits or high expectations.
They don’t care about their kids’ needs and don’t get involved in their lives. It’s possible that these absent parents themselves experienced depression, physical abuse, or neglect as youngsters.
Kids of negligent parents:
- They act more hastily.
- unable to control one’s emotions.
- encounter more issues with addiction and delinquent behavior.
- more mental health issues, such as adolescent suicidal behavior.
Which Parenting Styles is the Most Effective?
The best outcomes for children are consistently associated with authoritative parenting styles, according to decades of study in the field of parenting. The most effective parenting technique, according to psychologists and psychiatrists, is authoritative parenting.
Over 25 years have passed since many nations began studying this classification of parenting styles philosophies. Results are typically consistent across all parenting philosophies. However, there are still some discrepancies and exceptions in some areas. Here are some significant elements that could also influence how a child develops.